Tuesday, December 1, 2020

2020 - December - Characters Make The Story


Part 12 of 12  of Job titles for Story Characters • © 2020 All Rights Reserved

A lot of information has been included in this year's twelve monthly blog posts. That's why this end-of-the-year post is a summary— and a reminder. 

Topping the list of reminders is that plot is only as effective as the characters who showcase that plot. Write that in big bold letters and post it where you can see it every time you write a story.

Characters are so important that they can be sorted into categories by their job or function in the story. Knowing their story job titles and duties (job description) helps a writer create a far better story and stops overpopulating the story with a "cast of thousands." As you have learned this past year— 

Story job titles fall into categories of:

Major (or Main) Story Characters

The Protagonist (The Hero or Heroine)

The Antagonist (The Who or The What that opposes the Protagonist)

Major Secondary Characters

Romantic Interest or the Romantic Lead

Best Friend, Sidekick, Pal, etc.

Mentor, Advisor, Teacher, Sage, etc.

The Fool

The Entourages for the Protagonist are 

Friends, men

Friends, women

A Love Interest or The Romantic Lead (who is not a Major Secondary Character)

A Mentor

A Coach 

Pals (drinking buddies, poker pals, bowling pals) 

Family (parents, siblings, other relatives)


Work associates

Food industry workers (bar tender, waitress, etc.)

Health workers (doctor, nurse, etc.)

Tradesmen (plumber, mechanic, pool man, etc.)

Professionals (law enforcement, banking or financial, veterinarian, etc.)

. . . and so on.

The Entourage for the Antagonist (if a Who) can be

* Friends 

* Right-hand Henchperson or second in command

* Toadies, Monster-beings, Servants, Minions, etc.

* A Mentor

* Family (parents, siblings, other relatives)

* Professionals (gangsters, crooks, thieves, killers for hire, security enforcers, and others who procure things, obey orders, and carry out the Antagonist's plans and orders, and protect the Antagonist).

Tertiary Characters (Named Minor Characters), Symbolic Characters, and Prop People.

In the last three posts (September, October, and November) we discussed the sound of names (psycholinguistics), the merits of archetype names, tags and traits for names, and the value of having a master character worksheet (questionnaire).

Armed with the information in this year's posts, you should be able to write a story with far more believable characters.

If you're new to reading this blog, feel free to go to January 2020 and begin reading the posts.

And, thank you for being a faithful reader of this blog and for sharing the links with other writers. Your comments and questions are always welcome.

Strive to write well and tell a story well.

Catherine E. McLean



Revision is where the magic happens—

use this guidebook to take the frustration out of self-editing that draft you wrote during NaNoWriMo

Tell Santa you want this guidebook in your Christmas Stocking



Sunday, November 1, 2020

2020 - November - Character Worksheets

Part 11 of 12 of Job Titles for Story Characters 
 © 2020 All Rights Reserved


Hair and eye color are nice to know, but what makes a character tick—how he’ll respond to stress, his fears and desires are what’s really important to give you all the delicious tension and growth an I-can’t-put-this-book-down story needs. — Silvie Kurtz 

I've periodically mentioned writers using a character questionnaire or character worksheet to quickly get at the personality of the story's main characters. Unfortunately, it's mind-boggling what you can find in the way of character worksheets and characterization forms online. One site I stumbled across a couple years ago had hundreds of questions, even including the color of the character's kitchen sink!

In truth, it doesn't hurt to look over a lot of such questionnaires and worksheets, just don't use them as is. What  you want to do is incorporate questions into your own "cheat sheets" that will quickly define and bring to life your main characters. Strive to keep that form as simple and uncomplicated as possible to avoid getting bogged down filling in blanks or checking off boxes.

Producing writers don't waste time. Producing writers rely on their own, customized forms so they get at the core values of their main characters that helps ensure a viable plot.

Here's a secret — ONLY ONE MASTER FORM IS NEEDED. That "cheat sheet" works for the protagonist and antagonist. And, it's also used for a story with a Second Major Character who has Point of View-Viewpoint and without whom the plot will fail. 

All other characters are minor characters and do not need detailed work-ups (when they become heroes or heroines of their own books, then it's time to use the master questionnaire).

Using one master form means asking THE SAME QUESTIONS to the main story characters. Doing so reveals how the characters are fundamentally the same and how different they are. Those differences make for well-rounded characters and allow for an engaging and workable plot.

Working with "cheat sheet" forms is more than jotting in an answer. It's about asking the right questions and, more importantly, asking WHY or looking deeper into WHAT THE ANSWER MEANS. 

There are some common, fundamental, questions that appear on nearly every worksheet or questionnaire and those are below. I've also added in the WHY and WHAT factors to consider: 

1) Character's name — first, middle, last, initials, and nickname (if applicable). 

Be sure the initials do not spell something derogatory, unless you're writing comedy or irony, that is. Evaluate every name for the meaning, how the name looks, sounds, etc. –-  Refer to "Naming Characters," which was the September 2020 Writers Cheat Sheet blog topic.

2) The character's function in the story.

That is, what is their "job title" for the story. Is it Protagonist, Antagonist or Second Major Character (like the Romantic Lead, Mentor, Sidekick, etc.). Remember, each job title has a set of specific tags and traits.

3) Age 

Why that age? Does this character look their age? Older? Younger? Do they feel their age? What advantage or disadvantage does that age give the character in life or on-the-job? (i.e., An 18-year-old doesn't have the maturity of a 50-year-old.)

4) Sex or Sexual Orientation

How do they feel about their sexuality? If applicable, what kind of lover are they (both how they see themselves and how their partner or partners see them sexually, sensually).

5) Marital status — single, married, divorced, widowed/widower, with a significant other, etc. 

How do they feel about that status? If divorced, what caused the divorce? Are they a confirmed bachelor/bachelorette, and why? 

6) Occupation

This is about what the character does to make a living. Why did they choose that occupation? Are they happy in their career?  If so, why?  If not, why?

7) Distinguishing physical characteristics (scars, tattoos, blemishes, etc.)

This is where you-the-writer describe their physical attributes of height, weight, eye and hair color, shape of body and face, tone of voice, etc. Always ask Why that hair color? Why that eye color? The answers can yield clues to tags and traits. Tip: people react to colors on a subliminal level, for instance, blond often equates to "dumb blond" whereas someone with earth-brown hair is seen as "down to earth." You could have a smart blond or a dumb brunette, but you'll have to work a bit harder to convince the reader that you've gone against the stereotype.

8) Personality traits —  the "internal," intangible (abstract) of their character. 

Are they basically a pessimist or optimist? Note: I've found using percentages works best for me because no person or character is 100% pessimistic or optimistic. It's also wise to record the character's level for being an introvert or an extrovert. And ask, how do these traits affect their actions when under stress or in their normal day-to-day life. Or even, how do such traits mold their character?

9) Habits - what are their concrete habits (thumping a pencil, biting nails), speech-diction (formal, informal, use of slang, or repetitive phrases, diction, syntax), etc.

What triggered or triggers the habit? How do they typically react to fear, love, hate, anxiety? If afraid, do they stand and fight, freeze in place, or flee?

10) Background — their genealogy, their family and their social class, monetary status.

This includes their education (as in schooling or military service), the nationality influences of their family-upbringing (Christian, Jewish, Southern Baptist, and so on, and what holidays they love or hate or celebrate), previous jobs (and, if applicable, why they left them).

11) What is this character's greatest strength?  

Most likely it's one of the 7 Cardinal Virtues, or perhaps a few of Aristotle's 12 Virtues, which you can look up on the Internet.

12) What is this character's greatest weakness (their Achilles' heel)?  

Most likely it's one of the 7 Deadly Sins — either the Biblical ones or the Modern ones, which you can look up on the Internet.

And here is a bonus to consider putting on your form: What is the character's self-concept? To get the self-concept, have the character answer this question: "I am . . . " (fill in the blank with whatever the character says, which will be a short phrase). Examples include: I am a self-made man, or I am a disillusioned soldier (corporate executive, etc.), or I am a closet romantic, or I am always the bridesmaid never the bride . . . 

So that's the starting lineup of questions for a get-to-know-your character questionnaire. Where you go from there will depend on the type of genre you write, the information you feel is vital in getting to know your main characters, and looking at dozens of character forms to get ideas on format (arrangement of the items) and the question-content you want to add to your form. 

And, remember — only include what is useful and helps you discover a three-dimensional character that readers will recognize.


Next Month  - 2020 — December — A Summary 


To all who are participating in NaNoWriMo, I wish you success with your word quest!

# # # 

Thursday, October 1, 2020

2020 October - Character Tags & Traits


Part 10 of 12  of Job titles for Story Characters • © 2020 All Rights Reserved

Last month's blog was about psycholinguistics — how names resonate as positive, negative, or neutral and how that benefits a story. 

As you learned last month, imagery is tightly tied to the look and sound of a name. Writers should strive for an archetype name for their major story characters because, on a subconscious level, the archetype name triggers deep-seated recognition of tags and traits that go with that particular name.

But you may be wondering: What is a tag? What is a trait? 

They are defined as— 

TAGS are a descriptive detail, a label, repeated almost every time a character enters the story and which serves to identify and characterize him or her. Tags are concrete actions of cracking knuckles, drumming fingers on a table, biting nails, tapping a toe, etc.  Tags are "externals"— they are what can be witnessed, seen, heard, etc. Tags are concrete, specific, and credible (believable).

Now, a character's name is the most important TAG of all because it is THE TAG OF IDENTIFICATION. 

Names, particularly archetype names, come loaded with meaning and even character traits.

However, some tags label traits.  Such tags are physical clues to traits.

TRAITS are a character's characteristic habits, patterns of behavior, and mannerisms. The dominant impression is the trait that stands out the most and which should be shown to the reader from the get-go. Traits include: Is the character an optimist or pessimist? How does the character instinctively react when angry, happy, sad, etc.?

Traits are "internals" and abstracts— they involve the mind-set and personality of a character.  But here's a tip: Traits come in pairs: one is admirable and one is despicable (thus they are opposites, which helps balance out the character). For instance, at their best a character can be down-to-earth pragmatic but at their worst they can be very self-centered.

Traits come in the form of:

a verbal tic (they repeat a common phrase, which peppers their dialogue passages. For instance, in the TV series, Detective Columbo often says,  Just one more thing.

a particular way of speaking, like with an accent or dialect. For example Yoda of Star Wars' If no mistake have you made, yet losing you are . . . a different game you should play.

a physical mannerism or a repeating behavior (they smoke when nervous or chew on a toothpick, they bite their nails when anxious, they crack their knuckles, or they may even fiddle with something (a lock of hair, a token, a coin, etc.)

a way of carrying themselves, which can be their brisk stride, keeping a ram-rod straight spine, a mutinous set to their jaw, the meek hunching their shoulders, and so on.

a scent (their cologne, perfume, bath soap, or after shave, even their body odor from uncleanliness, fear, sweating, etc.)

Even if you love your protagonist and hate the antagonist, keep in mind that nobody is 100% good or 100% evil. It is the balance, or out-of-balance, personality traits that make a character "human," realistic, and believable to the reader.

If you need help with traits, google "Images of Character Traits." Or check out the book, A WRITER'S GUIDE TO CHARACTER TRAITS by Linda N. Edelstein, PH.D. 

One way to get to know a character is to journal in the voice of the character: 

to learn how they talk, speak, think

to get a look into their philosophies on life and death, right and wrong, and what's their moral compass

to learn about their education, job or sports experiences, etc.

to learn about their social-economic upbringing and heritage

to discover weaknesses and strengths of their character and what events in their life molded those

However, journaling is time consuming. Journaling also requires going back through what was written to locate tags and traits and sort them into which seem to dominate (likely three will for the story). And, of course, in the end, only 10% of what was in the journal is needed for the actual story. 

A quicker way to get to know a character is to use a "cheat sheet" called a Character Worksheet or a Character Questionnaire, which may include lists of tags and traits that the writer has collected over time or from various sources. In other words, as the writer goes down the lists they've developed, the subconscious will likely trigger a "ta-dah" or other positive response. Then the writer can look at the traits and tags and which fit will dominate.

Do remember that the only characters who warrant such journaling or character questionnaires are the story's major characters—Protagonist, Antagonist, and possibly the Second Major Character.

Which brings me to—   

Next month we'll look at Character Worksheets and Questionnaires. 

Tuesday, September 1, 2020

2020 - September - Naming Characters


Part 9 of 12  of Job titles for Story Characters • © 2020 All Rights Reserved

Your choice of monikers for heroes, heroines, and heavies often sets the tone for everything that follows, shaping audience perceptions of the characters before your people have a chance to hit their stride.  - Author Michael Newton 

Few writers know about psycholinguistics. The definition is mind-boggling in and of itself so let me give you the simplified definition: sounds affect the way we behave and act or react in the world. 

For instance, hear the hiss of a snake and our primordial conditioning that vipers can kill us has us instantly on alert and afraid — or terrified, or panicked to the point of immobility. On the other hand, if we hear a baby giggling, we have this feeling of contentment, that all is right with the world.

Such reactions to sounds happen instinctively, down on the subconscious level. But some name-sounds can also elicit a conscious reaction, like laughter at a person's named Katz Meow, or Iona Bra, which, by the way, are actual names of real people.

Another factor about sounds is reading words, i.e., seeing a name. When reading a name and in the process of looking at the letters in that name there is both a conscious and subconscious emotional reaction to those letters and the word they form. 

This is especially so when listening to the pronunciation by syllables of a name. Pronunciation affects the interpretation and sorts the name into a feeling that the name-word is positive, negative, or neutral. Here's a tip, the easier it is to see and sound out the name of the story's main characters, the more enjoyable the story becomes for the reader and writer. We're not talking Dick and Jane simple. We're talking James Bond versus Mister Mxyzptlk (of Superman fame).

Here's a secret to ensure a better story— heroes need positive names, villains need negative names, and all other characters in a story who have a name fall under the neutral name classification. This is another reason why having a Master Word List or Style Sheet for a story is important (refer to August's post about word lists or look at examples here.  https://www.writerscheatsheets.com/free-writers-cheat-sheets.html

Yet, far too many writers feel they can "make up a name" for their characters. The truth is that millions of names already exist. And do consider that every person has been exposed to thousands of names from the womb to school, on the job, at leisure, and in being exposed to hours of video, TV, movies, musicians, and print media (books, magazines, and newspapers). Such names are filed deep in the subconscious along with a reference to the name, or filed with the characteristics (archetype) of a person with such a name. 

Of course, there are name generators you can find online, but again, what is the psycholinguistics of such made-up names? Keep in mind that whether it's a person's name, an animal's, a place's, a thing's, a gizmo's, a weapon's, etc., all those names solicit (consciously or subconsciously) a reaction (a feeling) that will be positive, negative, or neutral. 

The most enduring of people names (those passed down through the generations) have imagery and characteristic associations (tags and traits), which makes them archetype names. For instance, these are powerful archetype hero/heroine names: James, Sarah, Jacob, Adam, Michael, Jillian.

Let me stress that it's not about stereotype but archetype.

Archetype names better resonate with readers. For instance, Margaret Mitchell first thought of calling Scarlet O'Hara of Gone With the Wind Pansy O'Hara. I'll bet when you saw Pansy, you envisioned a Milquetoast personality. But Scarlet? Didn't you see the fire and flare that goes with the resonance of the noise of her name?

Mitchell wasn't the only one who changed the name of their lead characters. How about— Sherringford Holmes changed to Sherlock Holmes and Luke Starkiller to Luke Skywalker? Which means, a writer should not entirely trust the source of a name, be the source their own subconscious or their conscious effort to invent a name. Every major character's name needs to be checked before writing the draft. That's right, before writing a draft. That will save hours of edits and rewriting to change the name. 

As a matter of fact, the appropriateness of all names used in a story should be analyzed — be it a machine, a street, an animal, a weapon, etc.  Ask: how does the "name" look? How is it spelled? How easy is it to sound out? Does the name come with tags and traits that make the character easily identifiable? Does the name have a positive, negative, or neutral vibe? 

Next Month  —October - Character Tags and Traits

Saturday, August 1, 2020

2020 - August - Named Minor Character - Prop People

Part 8 of 12  of Job titles for Story Characters • © 2020 All Rights Reserved

Let's look at some minor story characters - Tertiary Characters, Symbolic Characters, and Prop People. 

The term given for the Third Ranking Character in a story is Tertiary. Writers often lump all "other characters" in a story into the tertiary category. However, I like to simplify things and so I split that category into those who are— 

Named Minor Characters
Symbolic Characters
Prop People (who are not given a name)  

Characters that have a name are important enough to the story that they must be given a name, but not a Point of View-Viewpoint. Often those named characters are familiar with either the Protagonist or the Antagonist, like being part of either's entourage.

On occasions, one of those named characters might be considered a Symbolic Character. A Symbolic Character is any major or minor character whose very existence represents some major idea or aspect of society. For example, in Lord of the Flies, Piggy is a symbol of both the rationality and physical weakness of modern civilization.

Now as to— 


Like the furniture that decorates a setting, these necessary story folks are a kind of stage dressing. They bring realism to the setting and world of the Protagonist and Antagonist. Examples are the bar tender at the Protagonist's favorite watering hole, the taxi or Uber driver, the blacksmith, the farmer's wife, the brewmaster, the crewman who mans a communications or work station, a landscaping crew or other crews including ones led by the Protagonist's or Antagonist's second in command, and so forth. Although such characters may appear regularly in the story, the reader doesn't get to know them, their life story, or even their POV-Viewpoint about what's going on in the story. 

However, things will become confusing to a reader if there are too many characters with names, especially among the minor characters. To avoid confusion, most writers set up a Master Word List or what's also called a Style Sheet. This form (*see note below) can be used before (or during) drafting to keep track of names. It doesn't matter if it's a short story, a novel, or a saga, on that Master Word List go ALL NAMES— character, place, and named animals as well as named weapons, streets, or special props (like Ethan Allen or other designer furniture). Doing so uncovers repetition of names and repeated spellings of either whole or partial names. For instance a character called Beth and one called Elizabeth. Word Lists can also bring to light Freudian slips, faux pas, kazoo-sounds, or the rhyme or rhythm of consonants, vowels, and syllables (which isn't good).

A Word List can also reveal if too many characters or names are being created. Again, the reader will get confused if there are too many names to keep track of. So, here's a word to the wise— instead of creating another character who has a minor role, ask yourself if one of the other minor characters can do the same job or get or reveal the needed information.

If you've never done a word list, I have added a free PDF of the three most commonly used types of word lists (style sheets) at my Writers Cheat Sheet. The direct link to the page is HERE

RE: * FORMS — 
      The Internet abounds with countless forms for writers to use for developing a story. Trouble is, forms do you no good unless they work for you and the way you tell a story. So, consider looking at and reviewing lots of forms, then create your own unique ones which allow you to discover the personalities, tags, and traits of your main characters. You can also develop forms or worksheets that help define your story's plot. 

Next Month — September - Naming Characters

Wednesday, July 1, 2020

2020 - July - The Antagonist's Entourage and Henchpersons

Part 7 of 12  of Job titles for Story Characters • © 2020 All Rights Reserved

     Although serving a certain dramatic purpose, 
secondary characters have to rise above their roles
 to avoid cliche. — David Corbett The Art of Character

Antagonists tend to be loners. However, now and then, or by their desire, they have others help them achieve their goals. 

As you learned in this blog's March post, the Protagonist has an entourage. Well, an Antagonist could also have followers, like—  

* Friends — be they a man or a woman, that friendship isn't a binding one because as soon as the friend's usefulness ends, or their inability to be manipulated by the Antagonist ends, that character becomes expendable. It's also inevitable or likely that such a friend may die at the hands of the Protagonist. But if the Antagonist's goal warrants, the Antagonist won't have qualms about sacrificing their friend, cohort, or Head Henchperson or any lesser henchpersons.

* Toadies, Monster-beings, Servants, Minions, etc. — these characters come across as unquestionably loyal. They endeavor to please and appease the Antagonist. Often they fail and incur the Antagonist's wrath, which leads to punishment and suffering, if not their violent death. Some Antagonist have volatile tempers and violent reactions to mistakes.

* A Mentor — often in their youth, an Antagonist will learn from a master or a mentor. However, at some point, the Antagonist concludes they are superior to or more powerful than the Mentor. The result is a termination of the relationship. Often a Mentor has a showdown with their Antagonist student and loses. That loss might severely cripple the Mentor or rob them of their magical or superior powers, or kill them. If the Mentor survives, they are so weakened they usually pose no worthwhile threat to the Antagonist.

* Family (parents, siblings, other relatives) — Depending on how functional or dysfunctional the family is, family members may help or hinder the Antagonist achieving his or her goals.

* Professionals (gangsters, crooks, thieves, killers for hire, security enforcers, and others procure things, obey orders, and carry out the Antagonist's plans and orders, and protect the Antagonist. Often these professionals are paid (money, items of value like gemstones, etc.) for their loyalty and service. Trouble is, true loyalty cannot be bought, so how can the Antagonist truly trust them?

Of course, either from orders from the Antagonist or by chance, one of the Antagonist's entourage members may interact or collaborate with the Protagonist. Such interaction, when not sanctioned by the Antagonist, will lead to a calamity. That event can enrage the Antagonist enough to kill the collaborator. That event may even force the Antagonist to change their original plans or devise a way to turn the incident to their advantage.

Although most of the Antagonist's entourage fall into the category of Minor Named Characters or are Prop People, neither group gets a POV-Viewpoint. 

However, in the longer novels, there may be that rare individual of the Antagonist's entourage that merits being a Second Major Character with a limited POV-Viewpoint. That Second Major Character that's on the side of the Antagonist is, of course, the Antagonist's second-in-command— the Head Henchperson.

That Head Henchperson is an obedient aid, a loyal supporter, a dedicated follower, and a subordinate who is engaged in nefarious or criminal enterprises on behalf of the Antagonist. That henchperson may even be in charge of other, lesser-ranked henchpersons. The Head Henchperson may lead attacks, assign people to tasks, and thus carries out the orders of the Antagonist. 

Only because of their narcissistic or egotistical nature, the Antagonist rarely seeks advice from others but may use the Head Henchperson as a sounding board. Still, Antagonist don't trust others, even their Head Henchperson. 

The value of a henchperson or ally is to showcase the Antagonist, or to provide intel to the Antagonist, or reveal the Antagonist's character, goals, and reactions to events. As I have said in earlier posts, a good story can host only so many characters who can have POV-Viewpoint. Which means, it's unlikely that any of the Antagonist's entourage will get POV-Viewpoint, yet they provide necessary interaction with the Antagonist—and, perhaps, the Protagonist.

Bottom line— the reader wants to see the Antagonist face off with the Protagonist in the climax so it's best to put emphasis on the quality and character of the Antagonist. However, in novels or in the longest of short stories, that Antagonist may need someone to talk to or to order about or they may need an ally or a henchperson. 

Next Month August 2020 — Part 8 -  NAMED MINOR CHARACTERS

Monday, June 1, 2020

2020 --

Part 6 of 12  of Job Titles for Story Characters • © 2020 All Rights Reserved

As I wrote last month— Antagonist is an umbrella term that covers the WHO or the WHAT that will actively thwart the protagonist. Last month, we delved into what constitutes THE WHO, which is a human or being. This month we look at THE WHAT, which can be— 

Mother Nature (storms, asteroids, insect swarms, volcanoes, etc.)

Disease (natural, man-made, mutant, etc.)

An entity (vampires, deities, magical creatures, ghosts, etc.)

Aliens (intelligent life that comes from another planet, realm, dimension, or eco-system, etc.)

To achieve a believable WHAT as Antagonists means paying attention to world-building, science, and the natural world. After all, The What in the story needs to be worthy enough to successfully oppose the story's Protagonist.

Let's look closer at The What list— 

MOTHER NATURE — Devastation arises from storms (like tornadoes, flooding, blizzards, forest fires). Then there are insect swarms (beetles, locust) and even suffocating algae blooms. The list includes earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis. Any or all cause dire destruction, lives lost, property and land damage, infrastructure collapses (highways, power sources, etc.). At stake is survival.

DISEASE — For the past few months, we've all gotten a first-hand look at the impact of the coronavirus. The pandemic has been likened to a war with hospitals being the front lines and far too many lives lost. Then there is "shelter in place," shortages of food and protective gear, a shrinking if not stagnant economy, unemployment, businesses closing, and hardships. Again, at stake is survival of people, of mankind, and civilization isn't going to be the same again.

As to ENTITIES, the basic point of having an entity as Antagonist is that the story is more about the Protagonist realizing and dealing with some type of truth. 

Entities are also the creatures of fantasy and science fiction, so believability is paramount. Questions need to be asked before drafting a tale, like— 

How did that entity come to be? 
What powers does it posses? 
What can it control? 
What will destroy or kill it? 

A writer needs concrete answers because the story will likely fizzle out mid-way or the ending goes flat. 

As to ALIENS, there is a wide range form human-like to robotic, from Artificial Intelligence to mutants, and so on. Aliens are The What of science fiction and fantasy. Again, believability is an issue. That's why a great deal of forethought should go into the type of alien (and why that specific type), motivation (why they are a threat), their limitations, their Achilles' heel, etc. After all, at stake is the survival of the fittest, the Protagonist and what that Protagonist cares most about.

Make no mistake, readers are cynical disbelievers so it's imperative to find ways to suspend their disbelief and get them to believe in The What as the Antagonist. The secret is to give The What human characteristics or compare it (or them) to human's and the human environment.

As to disease and Mother Nature, most writers rely on facts and science to extrapolate a believable What as Antagonist. Mind you it's not about formulating some text-book tome, but providing just enough actual facts or tweaked facts that the premise is believable to the reader.

Lastly, remember a good story pits a great villain against a great Protagonist—two equal forces facing off. 

Next Month  **  2020 —July The Antagonist's Entourage and Henchpersons

Share this post with other writers. 

Friday, May 1, 2020

2020 — May The Antagonist - The Who

Part 5 of 12  of Job titles for Story Characters ■ © 2020 All Rights Reserved

The definition of antagonist is "someone who offers opposition."

Synonyms for antagonist include— adversary, opponent, opposer, resister, enemy, and foe.

Please note that when writing fiction, the antagonist is an umbrella term because the word covers the WHO or the WHAT that will actively thwart the story's Protagonist. Since an Antagonist can be either a WHO or a WHAT, this month we'll focus on The Who as Antagonist.

So, if the Antagonist is The Who, that Antagonist can be one of these types— 

– One truly nasty, vile villain-antagonist

– Complicating Characters (two or more) who are not vile per se

– One Agent of a government, religious or other caste group or association,                          etc. who may or may not be diabolical

The Who is often blatantly obvious— a stereotypically nasty, vile villain who is the staple of many a tale. However, a truly vile villain-antagonist's job is to do one or more of the following—

— thwart (baffle, ruin, disillusion, etc.)
— oppose (contradict, debate, protest, refute, repudiate, etc.) 
— actively work against (fight, battle, defend against, etc.)
— throw doubt on or create doubt within the Protagonist that said Protagonist cannot defeat the villain (and the Protagonist is certain the antagonist will win or obtain the story goal).

Keep in mind that such villain-antagonists will be— 

have selfish self-interests
are passionate about something (usually winning at all costs)
have a ruling passion that drives them (motivates them)

Such villains will exhibit certain traits, certain psychological or emotional aspects. Not every aspect will apply, but there likely will be three that dominate, like—    

  being clever
  being resourceful
  lacking empathy
  having a need for excessive admiration
  envying others (or believe others are envious of them)
  being psychologically wounded in some way
  being capable of enormous self-deceit
  being conceited (narcissistic)
  exploiting others
  having huge egos with a grandiose sense of self-importance
  being preoccupied with the fantasy of having or gaining unlimited success, power, money, brilliance, beauty, or obtaining the ideal love
  exhibiting haughty attitudes and behavior
and they especially—

  are arrogant (or demonstrate arrogance) often believing they are special or unique, and because they are above others, they believe they should associate with other high-status people or institutions

  have a sense of entitlement

  blame others (i.e., they don't take responsibility for their own failures)

Here's a secret— a villain is sired by frustration. (So ask: what exactly frustrates this villain?)

Here's another secret— true villains often kill and to kill those types of villains are motivated by one of these three reasons— 

greed (financial greed)
lust (sexual or relational lust)
power (the pursuit of power)

Can a villain kill for all three reasons? Yes, but— for a good story, only one reason will dominate because of the motivation and what's at stake in the way of the story goal.

Even if such a vile villain-antagonist appears to be evil, there will be a shred of good in them. Sometimes that shred of good is minuscule, but it's what makes the difference between a flat, cardboard, two-dimensional villain and one that come across for the reader as "a real person" capable of dastardly deeds.

Now, let's look at "lesser evil" types of Antagonists, commonly referred to as Complicating Characters. 

Such Complicating Characters might be two or more characters who are not nasty, vile villains per se but who thwart the Protagonist with their own individual or collective agendas and goals. Some common types of Complicating Characters are Matchmakers, Nosey Neighbors, the Meddler, etc. 

Please note that such Antagonists may not be working together or have similar goals, but their job in the story is to oppose, frustrate, and complicate the Protagonist's life. 

Thus Complicating Characters add drama and suspense to a tale. Can you have a vile-villain and complicating characters in a story? It all depends on the story being told and remember—a story can only support so many characters. Keeping things simple offers more drama and equals far more reader enjoyment.

As to the One Agent

That agent represents The Organization and acts on behalf of that organization to achieve the organization's goals. Unless, of course, the One Agent happens to be the head of the organization, in which case, he or she falls into one of the other types of Antagonists.

Lastly, for a literary-written, Discovery-type Story, the Antagonist is often of the Complicating Characters variety. They make, or force, the Protagonist to face the story's main issue which forces the Protagonist to look deep inside himself or herself to decide to change beliefs, attitudes, or a life situation—or perhaps decide not to change.

Regardless of the type of The Who that is an Antagonist, that human being or intelligent life form-entity, you-the-writer need to know that particular Antagonist's goals, desires, and motivations. 

It should go without saying that a good Antagonist must be a complicated individual, compelling, interesting, and believable. And like a story's Protagonist, a good Antagonist is larger than life.

So how do you make an Antagonist compelling, interesting, and believable? The easiest way is to use the very same character worksheet questionnaire you use for your Protagonist. That's right—everything you ask your Protagonist, you ask the Antagonist. In doing so, you'll uncover how the two are alike (and they should have some things in common) and how they are different. You'll also discover what makes the Antagonist want the story goal—their deep-seated desire and motivation that makes the Antagonist very capable of defeating the Protagonist.

And, when you look at the "flaws" for the Antagonist, you'll find their fatal flaw, the one that undermines them time and time again and which will come into play to defeat them in the story's climax.

Above all, a story's Antagonist deserves a worthy opponent, a worthy Protagonist, so is your Antagonist smart enough, powerful enough, devious enough, complicated enough, to duke it out with your Protagonist? 


Next Month — June  - The Antagonist - THE WHAT
# # # 

Wednesday, April 1, 2020

2020 — April — The Second Major Character

Part 4 of 12 of Job Titles for Story Characters © 2020 All Rights Reserved

Here's a new word for you to ponder— 


What does deuteragonist mean? It's the second most important character in a drama. Which means, we're talking about the story job title for the Second Major Character.

So, who do you think is the second most important character in a story? 

Here's the answer— in order of importance and popularity, the Second Major Character can be the— 

Romantic Interest or the Romantic Lead
Best Friend, Sidekick, Pal, etc.
Mentor, Advisor, Teacher, Sage, etc.
The Fool

Can there be more than one Second major Character in a story? Well, yes, there can be. However, do keep in mind that a story can support only so many characters in order to provide a good read and a worthy plot. So, limits must be set.

And, of course, there are Point of View (POV) and Viewpoint considerations. That's why only one Second Major Character could be in the longest of short stories and the shortest of novels. It's in the lengthy novels (over 80,000 words) that there may be a Second Major Character (often the Romantic Lead) with a POV-Viewpoint or even an additional Second Major Character or two, but who don't have POV-Viewpoint. 

Here's something to note— Pantsers have a tendency to create additional characters when drafting their story because there's a need to reveal information or a plot point. Instead, the Pantser should look for a way to reveal that information or revelation by using the story's dominant (most important) Second Major Character, or The Fool, or The Mentor, etc.

Now, let's look at each classification of Second Major Character— 


Of all the characters in a story, the Romantic Lead is probably the most popular. The Romantic Lead or Romantic Interest is also the most valuable. That's because just about every genre publisher wants a Romantic Lead plot or subplot— or at least a Romantic Interest subplot. Why? Because that enhances the saleability of a story. After all, most readers and book buyers are women. Even once staunchly male genres are being influenced by women readers. But writing a romance subplot or even including a Romantic Lead requires knowing The Romance Journey (similar to the Hero's Journey) and how to incorporate it into a story.


Just because the main character has a best friend (even of the BFF—best friend forever—category) doesn’t mean there’s not going to be some conflict between them. In almost every protagonist-BFF relationship, there ends up being some sort of falling out part-way through the story that causes additional conflict for the main characters. Look at Harry, Ron and Hermione in the Harry Potter series. It seems like two of the three friends are invariably fighting or arguing about what Harry should or shouldn't do. The only thing that seems to change is which two happen to be getting along at any given moment in the story. 

Believability is also strengthened by the interplay of the Protagonist with their BFF, sidekick, and pals. Even the Antagonist can influence, terrify, or threaten such friends.


In Shakespearean terms, The Fool is a character (usually the court jester) who says the things that the protagonist may not want to hear but needs to hear. 

In The Hero's Journey, often The Trickster archetype provides comic relief— and often points out the Protagonist's all too human follies, hypocrisy, or insincerity. 

Just because The Fool is called “The Fool” doesn’t mean he or she is foolish or stupid. Often The Fool turns out to be the wisest character in the story, sharing pearls of wisdom with the rest of the characters, only no one seems to listen to The Fool. Examples: Haymitch from The Hunger Games trilogy.

One last reminder— 

In these days of the coronavirus and being housebound to keep yourself and others safe, here's a CDC link I found helpful— 

Stay safe.

Stay healthy.

We're all in this together.

— Catherine E. McLean

Next Month - May  The Antagonist - The Who

# # # 

Sunday, March 1, 2020

2020 - March — The Protagonist's Entourage— the circle of friends and family

Part 3 of 12  of Job titles for Story Characters • © 2020 All Rights Reserved  - Catherine E. McLean  www.WritersCheatSheets.com 

In a story, the Protagonist will have helpers, that is, other characters will lend the Protagonist a hand in dealing with The Story Problem, be that problem a Who or a What known as The Antagonist.

The Protagonist doesn't live in a vacuum, well they might if it were outer space. For a story to have verisimilitude, that is believability, the story world will be populated with other people. A few, a very few, will interact with the Protagonist and Antagonist.  

Here's a list of characters that might associate with or relate to The Protagonist—  

Friends, men
Friends, women
A Love Interest or The Romantic Lead
A Mentor
A Coach 
Pals (drinking buddies, poker pals, bowling pals) 
Family (parents, siblings, other relatives)
Work associates
Food industry workers (bar tender, waitress, etc.)
Health workers (doctor, nurse, etc.)
Tradesmen (plumber, mechanic, pool man, etc.)
Professionals (law enforcement, banking or financial, veterinarian, etc.)
...and so on.

Now as you can image, some of these may interact with the Antagonist, which can lead to all sorts of calamities for the Protagonist. Of course, the Protagonist will be shocked or angry when he or she finds out.

Some of these entourage characters will have names, and fall into the category of Minor Named Characters and others are Prop People. Neither group will have POV-Viewpoint in the story. More on those two types of characters will be covered in August's blog post.

Now, only a rare few individuals on the entourage list will merit being a Second Major Character and they might have a POV-Viewpoint (but it will be limited). Second Major Characters have specific story job titles and responsibilities. We'll discuss them in April's blog post.  

Lastly, remember a story can host only so many characters so you must avoid a cast of thousands.  

Next Month 
2020 — April —  The Second Major Character
Romantic Lead, Sidekick, Mentor, etc.

# # #